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UDK  674:65.01:(497.12)

Prispelo / Received: 08.01.2003                                 Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 25.04.2003                                Original scientific paper

VPLIV RavnanjA z zaposlenimi in organizacijskE kulturE na prilagodljivost poslovanja SLOVENSKIH lesnoindustrijskih podjetij

Jo`e KROPIV[EK

Izvle~ek

Ravnanje z zaposlenimi in njihovimi zmo`nostmi ter organizacijska kultura imata pomemben vpliv na zagotavljanje (spremenljivemu) okolju prilagojenega in prilagodljivega poslovanja. To seveda velja tudi za (slovenska) lesnoindustrijska podjetja. Teoreti~no je ta vpliv povezan predvsem z znanjem, prek katerega je vzpostavljena (prakti~na) povezava z inovativno dejavnostjo, izrabo zmo`nosti zaposlenih, njihovim izobra`evanjem in usposabljanjem ter odnosi med njimi. S teoreti~no analizo smo ugotovili (potrebne) spremembe na obravnavanem organizacijskem podro~ju, ki so predvsem posledica sprememb v okolju. Teh sprememb je veliko, niso pa vse enako pomembne. Glede na ugotovljene pomanjkljivosti v slovenskih lesnoindustrijskih podjetjih, ki smo jih ugotavljali s pomo~jo metode klasi~nega vpra{alnika, smo poiskali in nakazali mo`ne re{itve trenutnega stanja v teh podjetjih, kar je bil tudi eden izmed ciljev te raziskave.    

Klju~ne besede: ravnanje z zaposlenimi, lesnoindustrijsko podjetje, organizacijska kultura

The IMPACT of human resources management and organizational culture on ADaPTABILITY of Slovenian wood-industry firms

Abstract

Human resources management and organizational culture have a significant impact on assuring adapted and adaptable business operations due to (changeable) environment. This fact is also evident in (Slovenian) wood-industry firms. Theoretically, this impact is associated with knowledge, which is in practice closely linked with innovativeness, exploitation of the employees' s abilities, their training and with relationships between employees in the firms. Thus, the theoretical analysis in this article shows (needed) organizational changes in discussed topics as a result of many changes in the environment. Many such changes were found which, however, are not equally important. In view of some deficiencies established in Slovenian wood industry firms with the aid of the opinion pool method, we have indicated possible solutions for the current situation in those firms. This was one of the main objectives of the carried out research.

Key words: human resources management (HRM), wood industry firms, organizational culture


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UDK  674:65.01:519.8:(497.12)

Prispelo / Received: 21.02.2003                                Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 24.04.2003                                Original scientific paper

model za Razvr[^anje izdelkov kosovnega pohi[tva iz lesa glede na obremenjevanje okolja med procesom izdelave

 Igor LIPU[^EK, Leon OBLAK, Lidija ZADNIK STIRN

 Izvle~ek:

Pri procesu proizvodnje kosovnega pohi{tva iz lesa vpliva na obremenjevanje okolja veliko parametrov. V raziskavi smo definirali klju~ne parametre in oblikovali model za razvr{~anje teh izdelkov glede na obremenjevanje okolja. Za oblikovanje modela je bila uporabljena  metoda ve~kriterijskega odlo~anja. Funkcije koristnosti so bile izra~unane z metodo analiti~nega hierarhi~nega procesa (AHP). Podatke smo zbrali na osnovi ekspertnih mnenj, ki so bila predhodno statisti~no obdelana. Oblikovani matemati~ni model omogo~a kriti~no primerjavo izdelkov z vidika obremenjevanja okolja in prikaze izrazitih prednosti oziroma slabosti dolo~enega izdelka.

Klju~ne besede: lesna industrija, obremenjevanje okolja, razvr{~anje izdelkov, modeliranje, ve~kriterijsko odlo~anje, AHP metoda

 

MODEL FOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOODEN FURNITURE PRODUCTS IN VIEW OF ENVIRONMENT THREATENING DURING THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

Abstract

There are many parameters influencing environmental burdening in the process of wooden furniture production. The aim of this research was to ascertain the key parameters and to form a model for classifying these products regarding their environmental burdening. The multi-criteria decision-making method was used for the model formation. Utility functions were calculated with the analytic hierarchy processes method (AHP) on the basis of prior statistically processed expert finding. The mathematical model formation enables a critical comparison of products from the viewpoint of environment threatening as well as exposure of explicit advantages and disadvantages of a certain product.

Key words: wood industry, environmental burdening, classification of products,  modelling, multi-criteria decision-making, AHP method


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UDK  676.022

Prispelo / Received: 01.04.2003                                Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 23.04.2003                                Original scientific paper

RAZVOJ IN UPORABA KOMBINIRANIH RETENCIJSKIH SREDSTEV

Vera RUTAR, Tamara STARE

Izvle~ek

Flokulacija je proces tvorbe flokul oziroma aglomeracije koloidnih delcev ter vpliva na formacijo papirja, ki je odvisna od mikro in makro homogenosti vlakninske suspenzije. Izbira papirni{kega sistema, torej vrsta vlaknin, polnil in dodatkov, vpliva na prisotnost snovi, ki kro`ijo v sistemu ter na u~inkovitost delovanja flokulacijskih ali retencijskih sredstev. Uporabili smo sintetizirana retencijska sredstva, polimere z razli~no molekulsko maso ter vrsto in gostoto naboja.

Mehanizem vezave delcev polnil in fine frakcije oziroma retencija je pogojen z adsorpcijo retencijskih sredstev na omenjene komponente ter tvorbo flokul. V zaprtih krogotokih se koli~ina neadsorbiranih snovi kot tudi desorbiranih pove~uje in obremenjuje vode, ki kro`ijo v sistemu.

Klju~ne besede: retencija, retencijska sredstva, elektrokinetski parametri

THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW RETENTION AGENTS FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

 Abstract

Flocculation is a process of flock formation or agglomeration of colloidal parts. It affects the formation of paper, which depends on micro- and macro-homogeneity of pulp suspension. Selection of a system, i.e. of various sorts of pulp, fillers and additives, affects the presence of stock flow in the system as well as the efficiency of flocculating and retention agentsí activities. Flocculants are synthesized chemical agents, polymers with differentiation in molecular weight as well as in charge sort and density. Filler parts and fine fraction bonding mechanism, i.e. retention, is conditional on adsorption of retention aids to the abovementioned components and on flocculant formation. The quantity of non-adsorbed as well as desorbed substances in closed circuits increases and charges the waters circulating within the system.

Key words: retention, retention agents, electrokinetic parameters


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UDK  621.934:674

Prispelo / Received: 03.04.2003                                Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 14.05.2003                                Original scientific paper

Pojav resonance v prosto vrte^ih se kro@nih @agnih listih

Bojan BU^AR, Miran MERHAR

Izvle~ek

V ~lanku je prikazana analiza aerodinami~nega vzbujanja prosto vrte~ega se kro`nega `agnega lista. Ko se kro`ni `agni list prosto vrti, se zrak v pazdu{nem prostoru ozobljenega dela orodja pri prehodu rezila lo~i od njegovih mejnih bo~nih povr{in in tvori spremenljivo valovito brazdo oziroma turbolentni tok zraka. Posledica ~asovno spremenljivega turbolentnega toka je nastanek spremenljivega tlaka zraka ob povr{nah rezila, kar predstavlja aerodinami~no vzbujanje `agnega lista. Za pojav pre~nega resonan~nega nihanja orodja ne zado{~a zgolj aerodinami~no generirana vzbujevalna sila s primerno frekvenco. Poleg omenjenega pogoja morata biti namre~ izpolnjena {e dodatna pogoja, in sicer morajo biti vzbujevalne tla~ne razlike okoli{kega zraka primerno velike, du{ilne sposobnosti materiala nosilnega telesa `agnega lista pa dovolj majhne. Ugotovili smo, da nikoli nista vzbujena dva ali ve~ lastnih na~inov nihanja hkrati in da je prehod iz enega resonan~nega stanja v drugega skokovit. Z nara{~ajo~o frekvenco vrtenja se praviloma pove~uje tudi obmo~je vrtljajev, v katerem pride do aerodinami~ne vzbuditve lastnih nihajnih na~inov.

Klju~ne besede: resonanca, aerodinami~no vzbujanje, nihanje kro`nih `agnih listov, hrup prosto vrte~ih se kro`nih `agnih listov, stabilnost kro`nih `agnih listov

RESONANCE IN IDLING CIRCULAR SAW BLADES

Abstract

The article deals with the analysis of the aerodynamic excitation of a freely rotating circular saw blade. When the circular saw blade rotates freely, the air in the gullet spaces of the rim area of the tool separates (in the passing of the knife from its border flanking surfaces) and forms a variable waveform wake or turbulent airflow. The consequence of the time-variable turbulent airflow is the occurrence of variable air pressure along the knife surfaces, which constitutes the aerodynamic excitation of the saw blade. For the occurrence of transversal resonant vibration of the tool, there does not suffice only aerodynamically generated excitation force at a suitable frequency. In addition to the said condition, two additional conditions must also be met: the exciting pressure differences of the surrounding air must be adequately large, and the damping capabilities of the material of the saw plate sufficiently small. We have found that two or more natural manners of vibration are never excited simultaneously and that the transition from one resonant condition into another is abrupt. With the increasing frequency of rotation there is also, as a rule, an increase in the range of rotations in which the aerodynamic excitation of natural manners of vibration occurs.

Key words: resonance, aerodynamic excitation, circular saw blade vibrations, circular saw blade idling noise, circular saw blade stability


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GDK  811.151+811.13+174.7 Abies alba

Prispelo / Received: 07.04.2003                                Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 05.05.2003                                Original scientific paper

DIFFERENTIATION OF LAST FORMED TRACHEIDS IN WOOD OF SILVER FIRS (Abies alba) HAVING VARIOUS CAMBIAL PRODUCTIVITY

Jo`ica GRI^AR, Ale{ STRA@E, Katarina ^UFAR

Abstract

To examine the state of differentiation of the last tracheids formed in wood and the duration of cambial activity, samples of wood and cambium were taken from mature silver fir (Abies alba) trees having various cambial productivity. Semi-thin cross-sections of wood sampled in July and October, 1999, were stained with toluidine blue and observed under a light microscope. In July, three different phases of current annual xylem growth ring formation were found, as a result of various cambial productivity of trees. In October, the cell divisions in the cambium were completed in all investigated trees, while the process of differentiation was not entirely completed in trees with a more productive cambium. The number of undifferentiated tracheids was higher in trees having a more productive cambium. In these trees, the cambial activity and the differentiation ended later. In declining trees, the number of cells produced by the cambium was lower and the duration of cambial activity was shorter.

Key words: silver fir (Abies alba), wood, tracheids, cambial activity, differentiation

DIFERENCIACIJA ZADNJIH NASTALIH TRAHEID V LESU JELK (Abies alba) Z RAZLI^NO PRODUKTIVNIM KAMBIJEM

Izvle~ek

Raziskali smo stanje diferenciacije zadnjih nastalih traheid lesa tik ob kambiju ter trajanje kambijeve aktivnosti pri jelkah (Abies alba) z razli~no produktivnim kambijem. Vzorce lesa in kambija smo odvzeli iz odraslih jelk julija in oktobra 1999. Poltanke rezine pre~nega prereza smo obarvali s toluidin modrim ter prou~ili pod svetlobnim mikroskopom. Julija smo zasledili 3 razli~ne faze nastajanja lesa v braniki teko~ega leta, kar se je skladalo z razli~no kambijevo produktivnostjo dreves. Oktobra celi~nih delitev v kambiju nismo zasledili pri nobenem od prou~evanih dreves; proces diferenciacije v zadnjih nastalih traheidah pa pri produktivnej{ih drevesih {e ni bil zaklju~en. [tevilo nediferenciranih celic v lesu je bilo pri produktivnej{ih drevesih zna~ilno vi{je, kambijeva aktivnost ter diferenciacija pa sta se zaklju~ili kasneje, kot pri drevesih z manj produktivnim kambijem. V kambiju prizadetih dreves je bilo {tevilo nastalih celic ni`je, trajanje kambijeve aktivnosti pa kraj{e.

Klju~ne besede: navadna jelka (Abies alba), les, traheide, kambijeva aktivnost, diferenciacija


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GDK  3+308:(083.9)

Prispelo / Received: 25.01.2003                                Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 20.05.2003                                Original scientific paper

MODELNA NAPOVED TRENDOV LESNIH ZALOG V ODVISNOSTI OD JAKOSTI RED^ENJ IN PROIZVODNE DOBE

Janez KR^, Bo{tjan KO[IR

Izvle~ek

Za razli~ne ravni velikosti gozdne posesti smo napovedali razli~ice razvoja gozdnih sestojev. V ta namen smo razvili ra~unalni{ki algoritem, ki posnema razvoj gozdnih sestojev. Z njim smo izra~unali prihodnja stanja lesnih zalog po gozdnih odsekih. Gozdni odseki so najvi{ja raven podrobnosti vhodnih podatkov, ki smo jih pridobili iz ra~unalni{ke zbirke podatkov popisa gozdov. Simulacija gospodarskih ukrepov je dolo~ena s ciljno funkcijo pribli`evanja rasti{~u primernih struktur lesnih zalog po drevesnih vrstah. Razli~ice scenarijev smo lo~ili po intenziteti red~enj in dol`ini proizvodnih dob. Bolj{i so scenariji, ki zagotovijo ~im bolj rasti{~u primerne strukture sestojev. Model smo preizkusili na primeru gozdnogospodarske enote Jezersko.

Klju~ne besede: pridelava lesa, na~rtovanje, ekolo{ki vidik, napoved, ra~unalni{ka simulacija, razvoj gozdnega sestoja, model

A COMPUTER MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF CUTTING VOLUMES REGARDING FUTURE FOREST STAND DEVELOPMENT

Abstract

A prediction of future development for different sizes of forest properties and time scales was made as well as a computer algorithm for the simulation of future forest stand development. With the aid of the algorithm, we calculated the future situation of growing stock for a basic simulation unit of a forest section. The forest section was at the same time the smallest unit of input data, mostly taken from national forest inventory data. The management scenario simulation was controlled by the target function. The target function determined the difference between actual and model optimal growing stock by tree species. Scenarios were defined by thinning intensities and length of rotation period. Different scenario results were analyzed with respect to ecological aspects regarding the forest site demands. Models were tested in the Jezersko forest management unit.

Key words: wood production, planning, ecological view, target situation, computer simulation, forest stand development, model


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GDK  304+922.1:(497.12)

Prispelo / Received: 18.04.2003                                Izvirni strokovni ~lanek
Sprejeto / Accepted: 27.05.2003                                Original professional paper

VARNOST PRI DELU V DR@AVNIH GOZDOVIH SLOVENIJE LETA 2001

Marjan Lipoglav[ek, Anton POJE

Izvle~ek

Prispevek obravnava nezgode, ki so se zgodile v letu 2001 v 13 ve~jih gozdarskih dru`bah in jih primerja s preteklimi leti. Obravnavane gozdarske dru`be opravijo ve~ino dela v dr`avnih gozdovih Slovenije. Ugotovili smo, da se je v letu 2001 ugodno zmanj{alo {tevilo nezgod, pogostnost nezgod in {tevilo nezgod na obseg proizvodnje. Na `alost pa se je zopet pove~ala resnost nezgod. Najve~ nezgod se je zgodilo v ponedeljkih in torkih okoli 9. in 12. ure v mesecih marcu in aprilu, juniju, septembru in oktobru. Ve~ina nezgod se je {e vedno zgodila starej{im delavcem. Najve~ja `ari{~a nezgod {e vedno predstavljajo se~nja in spravilo. Med viri nezgod so prevladovali deli dreves in razli~ni predmeti ter tla. Najbolj ogro`eni telesni deli so bili: glava, golen, prsti rok, prsi, koleno gle`enj in o~i. Najpogosteje so se nezgode pojavljale pri red~enju v enoslojnih sestojih debeljaka na terenih z 0-30% naklonom. Do najve~ nezgod je prihajalo pri izdelavi debla s prostornino 0,3-0,5 m3 iz 0,5-1,5 m3 velikega drevesa po sortimentni metodi.

Klju~ne besede: dr`avni gozd, gozdarska dru`ba, varstvo pri delu, delovna nezgoda, pogostnost, resnost nezgod, `ari{~a

Work safety in Slovenia's state-owned forests in 2001

Abstract

The article discusses the accidents that occurred at workplaces in Slovenia in 13 biggest forestry companies. These companies worked mostly in state-owned forests. Accidents are compared to those from previous years. It was established that in the year 2001 the number of accidents, frequency and the number of accidents per amount of production decreased. On the other hand, an increase of severity was noticed. Most of the accidents happened on Mondays and Tuesdays, around 9 and 12 a.m., in March, April, June, September and October. Mainly elderly workers were involved in the accidents. The focal points of the accidents were still cutting and wood skidding. Main causes for the accidents were parts of trees, some other objects, or the forest ground. Most of the injuries were inflicted to: head, shin, arm fingers, chest, knee, ankle and eyes. The accidents occurred primarily in even-aged (one canopy layers) stands, stands with mature trees, on fields with 0-30% slope by thinning. Handling an assortment method with trunks with volume 0,3-0,5 m3, which are made from trees of 0,5-1,5 m3 volume, caused most of the accidents.  

Key words: forestry enterprise, safety at work, work accident, frequency, severity, work conditions