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GDK 319 : (497.12) 

Prispelo / Received: 20.05.2003 Predhodna znanstvena objava 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 06.11.2003 Short communication

PRESOJA RAZLICIC OMEJITEV RABE STROJNE SECNJE LESA Z VIDIKA TERENSKIH IN SESTOJNIH RAZMER V SLOVENIJI

Janez KRČ, Boštjan KOŠIR

Izvleček: V prispevku avtorja predstavljata metodo in rezultate študije o možni uporabi strojne sečnje lesa v Sloveniji. Študija je bila narejena z računalniškim modelom, pri katerem smo za vplivne dejavnike uporabili razpoložljive digitalne podatke, od katerih je v največji meri odvisna možnost izvedbe strojne sečnje lesa. Analizirali smo različice strogosti upoštevanja pogojev za izločanje primernih površin. Rezultati študije kažejo, da so velike možnosti povečanja ocene površin kot primerne za rabo strojne sečnje na strmejših terenih ter v sestojih z večjim deležem listavcev. 

Ključne besede: strojna sečnja, primernost terena in sestojev, model, količine možnih secenj

THE SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF CUT-TO-LENGTH IN SLOVENIA IN VIEW OF TERRAIN AND STAND

Abstract: The paper presents the method and results of the study of cut-to length suitability in Slovenia. The study was carried out with the aid of a computer model. Decisive variables and all the available digital forest inventory data were used with then most important cut-to-length limiting factors. The variation of decisive variables was analysed and compared with basic values in order to determine areas suitable for cut-to-length. The results show great variations as far as the selected areas are concerned, with terrain slope and share of conifers in growing stock as the most important factors in them. 

Key words: cut-to-length, terrain and forest stand suitability, model, allowable cut


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GDK 182.23 : (497.12) : (497.13) 

Prispelo / Received: 18.09.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 03.11.2003 Original scientific paper

GENETSKA DIFERENCIACIJA AVTOHTONIH POPULACIJ SMREKE (PICEA ABIES (L. ) KARST.) V SLOVENIJI, UGOTOVLJENA Z ANALIZO IZOENCIMOV

Gregor BOŽIČ, Monika KONNERT, Mitja ZUPANČIČ, Hojka KRAIGHER, Ivan KREFT

Izvleček: Raziskava obravnava genetsko diferenciacijo 22 populacij smreke (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) z njenih naravnih rastišč v Sloveniji in 4 na Hrvaškem z analizo izoencimskih genskih označevalcev. Razlike med populacijami smo ocenili z genetskimi razdaljami po Gregoriusu (1974) za 15 polimorfnih genskih lokusov. Vrednosti genetskih razdalj se gibljejo med 0,021 in 0,073 (v Sloveniji do 0,063). Izoencimska genetska diferenciranost smreke je razmeroma majhna. Rezultati hierarhične klasifikacije nakazujejo geografsko odvisno združevanje populacij v dve skupini: alpsko skupino s Trnovskim gozdom in osrednje dinarsko skupino. Skupini se na območju Snežnika tudi prekrivata. 

Ključne besede: Picea abies (L.) Karst., izoencimi, genetska diferenciacija, varstvo gozdnih genskih virov, Slovenija, Hrvaška

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF THE INDIGENOUS NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) POPULATIONS IN SLOVENIA INVESTIGATED BY MEANS OF ISOENZYME GENE MARKERS

Abstract: Genetic differentiation of 22 indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) populations from Slovenia and 4 from Croatia has been investigated by means of isoenzyme gene markers. The degree of differentiation among populations has been measured with genetic distances proposed by Gregorius (1974) for 15 polymorphic gene loci. Multilocus estimates of genetic distances range between 0.021 and 0.073 (in Slovenia up to 0.063). Norway spruce populations did not show a strong genetic differentiation by isozymes. The results of hierarchical classification indicated a geographically dependent pooling of populations into two distinct groups: Alpine group including Trnovski gozd and Central Dinaric group, with the two groups overlapping in the Snežnik area. 

Key words: Picea abies (L.) Karst., isoenzymes, genetic differentiation, forest gene conservation, Slovenia,


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GDK 150 + 148.2 Tetrao tetrix L.: 1 : (497.12 Zahodno Pohorje)

Prispelo / Received: 11.04.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 03.11.2003 Original scientific paper

OVREDNOTENJE VEGETACIJSKE PRIMERNOSTI HABITATA RUŠEVCA (TETRAO TETRIX L.) NA POHORJU

Jurij GULIČ, Marijan KOTAR, Miran ČAS, Miha ADAMIČ

Izvleček: Ruševec se na Pohorju (severno-vzhodna Slovenija) pojavlja na grebenskih legah v zahodnem delu pogorja. V rastitvenih sezonah 2000 in 2001 smo napravili popis aktivnosti sub-populacij na šestih znanih rastiščih in tako izločili ploskve potencialnega habitata. Na njih smo raziskovali odločilne vegetacijske strukture. V primerjavo sta vključeni tudi dve opuščeni rastišči. Vse popisne ploskve (400x400m) so bile razdeljene na 256 osnovnih ploskvic. Ugotavljamo, da so štiri aktivna rastišča med seboj relativno homogena, od njih pa se jasno ločita obe opuščeni rastišči. Razlike med srednjimi vrednostmi ocenjevanih značilnosti vegetacijskih tipov (pokrovnost borovnice, brusnice, jesenske vrese, zeliščne plasti, delež travišč in travišč v zaraščanju, grmovne plasti, sklep krošenj smreke in jerebike v drevesni plasti ter mravljišč) so statistično značilne. Trend upadanja abundance ocenjevanih značilnosti habitata je opazen od zahoda do opuščenih rastišč na vzhodu, od zaledja stabilne alpske populacije proti robu ob subpanonskem fitogeografskem območju. Pokrovnost borovnice na aktivnih rastišcih je 19%, na opuščenih 5%, pokrovnost zeliščne plasti ocenjevanih vrst je 38%, na opuščenih 11%, število mravljišč je 13,7/ha, na opuščenih rastiščih 8/ha. Primerjava med vegetacijskimi tipi je pokazala, da so najprimernejši habitati na mestih, kjer se prepletajo barjanski ekosistemi (12%), travišča (15%), zaraščajoča travišča (41 %), gozd (31 %) in vodne površine (1 %), vendar ob pogoju, da območje ni v nadaljnjem zarašcanju in ni preveč obljudeno. 

Kljucne besede: ruševec (Tetrao tetrix L.), rastiščne značilnosti, habitatske zahteve, gozdna meja, vegetacijski popisi, zaraščanje planj, varstvo narave, Centralne Alpe, Pohorje

VEGETATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE BLACK GROUSE HABITAT (TETRAO TETRIX L.) IN POHORJE MTS.

Abstract: The Black Grouse inhabits mountain ridges in the western part of the Pohorje Mts (1543 m a.s.l., NE Slovenia). In the mating periods (2000, 2001), we carried out a survey of six known pairing areas and thus separated plots of potential habitat. In comparison, two abandoned display grounds were also incorporated. The base sampling areas (400 x 400 m) were divided into 256 square planes. It was discovered that the four active display grounds were relatively homogenous, while the two abandoned grounds clearly differed from them. The differences of the observed vegetation type characteristics (cover of blueberry, cranberry, autumn heather, herb layer, share of pastures including those now being overgrown, the abundance of bush layer, crown density of Norway spruce, mountain ash and anthills) are statistically significant. This declining tendency was noticeable from the display grounds in the west to the abandoned display grounds in the east, from the hinterland of a stable Alpine population towards the edge of the sub-Pannonian phytogeographic region. Cover value of blueberry on active display grounds is 19%, abandoned display grounds 5 %, herb layer 38% (11%), the number of anthills is 13.7/ha (8/ha). A comparison between vegetation types and richness of herbal and shrub layer has shown that the most suitable habitats for the Black Grouse are places with interchanging swampland ecosystems (12%), pastures (15%), partially overgrown pastures (41%), forest (31%) and water areas (1%), although on preliminary condition that the area is not being further overgrown and overpopulated, by human. 

Key words: Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix L.), site characteristics, habitat requirements, alpine timberline, vegetation survey, overgrowing of pastures, nature conservation, Central Alps, Pohorje Mts 


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GDK 813.1 

Prispelo / Received: 29.09.2003 Pregledni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 17.11.2003 Scientific review paper

LES - SKLADIŠČE OGLJIKA

Igor LIPUŠČEK, Vesna TIŠLER

Izvleček: V prispevku je predstavljeno globalno gibanje ogljikovega dioksida, ki je zaradi velikih količin najpomembnejši toplogredni plin. Preučevali smo ogljikov cikel in možnosti za njegovo podaljšanje, kjer smo analizirali mehanizme, ki ogljikov dioksid odstranjujejo iz ozračja in ga za daljše časovno obdobje vežejo v trdne substance. Osredotočili smo se na ponor ogljikovega dioksida v lesno biomaso in skladiščenje ogljika v lesu. Na osnovi podatkov za delež komponent lesa in s kemijsko analizo komponent smo izračunali delež ogljika v lesu in ekvivalentno količino ogljikovega dioksida, ki je bila v procesu fotosinteze porabljena za nastanek 1 kg lesne materije. Ugotovili smo, da se za nastanek 1,0 kg absolutno suhega lesa v procesu fotosinteze iz atmosfere povprečno porabi 1,8 kg ogljikovega dioksida. 

Ključne besede: ogljikov cikel, ogljikov dioksid, ponor ogljika, les

WOOD - A CARBON DEPOT

Abstract: The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated the share of carbon in wood and the equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide used in the process of photosynthesis for formation of 1.0 kg of wood matter. It was established that in the process of photosynthesis, approximately 1.8 kg of carbon dioxide is used on average from the atmosphere to form 1 kg of absolutely dry wood. 

Key words: carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, carbon sink, wood


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GDK 832.14 

Prispelo / Received: 16.09.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 10.11.2003 Original scientific paper

SKRAJŠANJE NASTAVITVENEGA ČASA NA ŠTIRISTRANSKEM SKOBELJNEM STROJU Z METODO SMED

Leon OBLAK, Jože KROPIVŠEK, Igor LIPUŠČEK

Izvleček: Zaradi čedalje hitrejšega naraščanja raznolikosti proizvodov in manjšanja velikosti izdelavnih serij je skrajšanje nastavitvenih časov na strojih ključnega pomena za dobičkonosnost podjetja. V članku smo obravnavali problem dolgih nastavitvenih časov na strojih v lesnoindustrijskem podjetju in možnosti za reševanje tega problema z metodo SMED. Kot primer smo analizirali skrajšanje nastavitvenega časa na štiristranskem skobeljnem stroju. 

Ključne besede: lesnoindustrijsko podjetje, štiristranski skobeljni stroj, nastavitveni časi, metoda SMED

SETUP TIME REDUCTION ON FOUR-SIDE PLANING MACHINE WITH THE SMED METHOD

Abstract: Due to the rapidly increasing diversity of products and smaller batch sizes, the setup time reduction is of crucial importance for the profitability of a company. The article deals with the problem of long setup times in a wood company and possibilities for the solution with the SMED method. On a practical case, the setup time reduction on four-side planing machine was analysed. 

Key words: wood industry company, four-side planing machine, setup times, SMED method


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GDK 847.275 

Prispelo / Received: 18.09.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 03.11.2003 Original scientific paper

CHANGES OF ASHWOOD pH-VALUE DURING CONVENTIONAL DRYING

Aleš STRAŽE , Sandi TORKAR, Vesna TIŠLER, Željko GORIŠEK

Abstract Changes of pH of sawn wood during conventional drying were studied. Green ashwood boards (Fraxinus excelsior L.), 25.4 mm in thickness, were exposed to 1 month air drying and to kiln drying using 7 schedules, reached by varying temperature (20°C, 30°C and 65°C) and relative air humidity (33% to 90%). Wood samples for pH and moisture content (MC) determination were taken in successive time interval at 3 board's depths (1/10, 1/3 and 1/2 of thickness). MC was established gravimetrically. pH-value determination of solid wood water system by suspending wood dust into distilled water was used. The lowest used temperature and duration of drying procedure had not significant influence on wood pH. Wood acidification was confirmed at higher drying temperatures (30°C and 65°C), particularly with lower drying rates and prolongation of the procedure. Among all the factors, drying temperature had the greatest impact on the pH-value of wood. 

Key words: ash-wood, pH-value, drying, drying conditions

SPREMINJANJE pH-VREDNOSTI JESENOVINE PRI KONVEKTIVNEM SUŠENJU

Izvleček: Raziskovano je bilo spreminjanje pH-vrednosti lesa med procesom naravnega in komorskega sušenja žaganega lesa. Les velikega jesena (Fraxinus excelsior L.), debeline 25mm, je bil sušen pod sedmimi konstantnimi sušilnimi režimi, z uporabo 3 temperatur (20°C, 30°C in 65°C) in relativnih zračnih vlažnosti med 33% in 90%. Vzporedno je potekalo zračno sušenje jesenovine v spomladanskih kontinentalnih klimatskih razmerah. Določanje pH vrednosti in lesne vlažnosti je potekalo z odvzemanjem vzorcev v zaporednih časovnih intervalih na 3 globinah žaganic (1/10, 1/3 in 1/2 debeline). Lesna vlažnost je bila določena gravimetrično, pH-vrednost lesa pa z vodno ekstrakcijsko metodo. Vrednosti pH jesenovine se pri sušenju z najnižjo temperaturo niso spremenile. Z višanjem temperature sušenja (30°C in 65°C) se je pH jesenovine značilno zmanjšala, še posebej pri daljšem sušenju in ob uporabi vlažnejših klimatskih razmer v komori. Temperatura sušenja je imela med vsemi dejavniki najbolj izrazit vpliv na pH lesa. 

Ključne besede: jesenovina, pH-vrednost, sušenje, sušilne razmere


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GDK 841.4 + 844 

Prispelo / Received: 16.09.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 06.11.2003 Original scientific paper

OKUŽBA S PRIPRAVKI CCB ZAŠČITENIH IN IZPRANIH LESNIH VZORCEV Z GLIVAMI RAZKROJEVALKAMI LESA

Miha HUMAR, Franc POHLEVEN

Izvleček: Les, zaščiten s pripravki CCB, je odporen proti trohnjenju. Vendar v zadnjih letih opažamo, da se na lesu, impregniranem s CCB, pojavljajo okužbe z glivami, tolerantnimi na Cu. V raziskavi smo opazovali preraščanje in penetracijo hif na zaščitenih vzorcih, izpostavljenim glivam razkrojevalkam, in osvetlili vpliv izpiranja na kolonizacijo. Vzorce smo izdelali iz beljave smrekovine (Picea abies) in jih impregnirali s 5 % raztopino CCB v skladu s standardom SIST EN 113. Del kondicioniranih vzorcev smo izpirali po standardu SIST EN 84. V tretjino izpranih in neizpranih vzorcev smo vzdolžno zvrtali luknjo in vanjo vstavili palčko (r = 1,5 mm, l = 25 mm). Nato smo odprtino zatesnili z epoksidnim premazom. Sterilizirane impregnirane in neipregnirane vzorce smo izpostavili dvema na baker tolerantnima sevoma (Antrodia vaillantii in Leucogyrophana pinastri) in dvema na baker občutljivima izolatoma (Poria monticola, Gloeophyllum trabeum). Po izpostavitvi smo iz vzorcev previdno odstranili palčko in jo postavili na sterilno hranilno gojišče, kjer smo dva tedna opazovali prisotnost hif. Stopnjo kolonizacije smo ovrednotili tudi z merjenjem CO2. Po 16 tednih izpostavitve smo ugotovili še izgubo mase izpostavljenih vzorcev. Neimpregnirane vzorce so najhitreje prerasle hife glive G. trabeum. Po drugi strani pa pri vzorcih, impregniranih s CCB, na palčkah tudi po 12 tednih izpostavitve nismo zasledili prisotnosti hif. Prodiranje hif pri izpranih impregniranih vzorcih je bilo bistveno hitrejše. Menimo, da je razlog za intenzivnejšo kolonizacijo izpranih vzorcev, impregniranih s CCB, izprani bor, ki v nižjih koncentracijah ni zaviral preraščanja micelija. 

Ključne besede: toleranca na baker, CCB, les, glive razkrojevalke, bor, izpiranje, preraščanje, respiracija

INFECTION OF CCB PRESERVED AND LEACHED WOOD SPECIMENS WITH WOOD DECAY FUNGI

Abstract: CCB treated wood is generally resistant to all wood decay fungi. However, like at CCA impregnated wood, susceptibility of CCB treated wood to copper tolerant fungi have been observed. It was investigated whether the hyphae of brown rot fungi could overgrow on and penetrate into the wood samples. Samples made of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were impregnated with 5 % CCB solution according to the EN 113 procedure. After conditioning, part of the samples was leached according to the EN 84 method. A small stick of unimpregnated wood (r = 1.5 mm, l = 25 mm) was inserted into a hole, bored in the center of the sample, and then sealed with epoxy coating. Sterilized, leached and non-leached impregnated and unimpregnated specimens were exposed to two copper-tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii, Leucogyrophana pinastri) and two copper sensitive (Poria monticola, Gloeophyllum trabeum) brown rot fungal strains. After exposure, the inserted wood pieces were removed from the specimens and put onto nutrient medium in petri dishes. Growth of the hyphae from those wood pieces was then visually determined. Rate of colonization by the fungi was determined by measurement of CO2. Mass losses after 16 weeks of exposure were also determined. The fastest colonization of the unimpregnated specimens was by G. trabeum. On the other hand, no fungal growth could be detected on non-leached CCB impregnated specimens even after 12 weeks of exposure. However, significantly more intense colonization by the copper tolerant fungi was detected on the leached CCB treated samples. We concluded that the reason for observed higher susceptibility originates in leached boron, which did not influence, in lower concentrations, fungal growth. 

Key words: copper tolerance, CCB, wood, wood decay fungi, leaching, boron, overgrow, respiration 


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GDK 561.24 : (497.12 Ljubljansko barje) 

Prispelo / Received: 19.06.2003 Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 24.11.2003 Original scientific paper

DENDROKRONOLOŠKE RAZISKAVE NA ZALOŽNICI - NAJMLAJŠI ZNANI BAKRENODOBNI KOLIŠČARSKI NASELBINI NA LJUBLJANSKEM BARJU

Katarina ČUFAR, Anton VELUŠČEK

Izvleček: Predstavljamo rezultate raziskav lesa in drugih arheoloških najdb z zaščitnih izkopavanj v jarkih na ostankih bakrenodobne-eneolitske koliščarske naselbine Založnica pri Kamniku pod Krimom na Ljubljanskem barju. Od 1315 vzorcev lesa smo jih dendrokronološko raziskali 35%. Sestavili smo dve jesenovi (Fraxinus sp.) in eno hrastovo (Quercus sp.) kronologijo širin branik. Rekonstruirali smo gradbene aktivnosti na naselbini, ki so trajale 90 let. Ugotovili smo, da so se časovno prepletale z aktivnostmi na 10 km oddaljeni naselbini Parte, ki je obstajala istočasno. Na osnovi radiokarbonskih datacij konec gradbenih aktivnosti na Založnici datiramo v 25. stoletje pr. Kr. Naselbina v zadnjih 40 letih obstoja tvori najmlajšo znano eneolitsko koliščarsko naselbino na Ljubljanskem barju in v Sloveniji. Na podlagi datiranega lesa in primerjave drugih arheoloških najdb utemeljujemo uvrstitev naselbine v kulturo Somogyvár-Vinkovci, kar je novost pri interpretaciji poselitvenih sprememb pred nastopom bronaste dobe na obmocju Ljubljanskega barja, Slovenije in sosednjih dežel. 

Ključne besede: dendrokronologija, moker arheološki les, hrast (Quercus sp.), jesen (Fraxinus sp.), eneolitik-bakrena doba, koliščarske naselbine, radiokarbonsko datiranje

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ZALOŽNICA - THE LATEST KNOWN ENEOLITHIC PILE DWELLING AT LJUBLJANSKO BARJE

Abstract: Investigations in wood and archaeological artefacts collected during rescue excavations in the drainage ditches on the location of copper-age, i. e. Eneolithic pile dwelling Založnica at Ljubljansko barje (Ljubljana Moors, Slovenia) are presented. 35% of 1315 samples were dendrochronologically investigated. We constructed three tree-ring chronologies, two of ash-wood (Fraxinus sp.) and one of oak (Quercus sp.), and reconstructed the building activities that occurred in the period of 90 years. We found out that the activities in Založnica coincided with those in another pile dwelling Parte, which existed in the same period and was located 10 km away from Založnica. Based on radiocarbon dating, the activities in Založnica ended in the 25th century BC. The last 40 years of the settlement delineate the youngest Copper Age settlement at Ljubljansko barje and in Slovenia. We describe how the dated wood and its relation to other archaeological artefacts helped us to place Zložnica in the Somogyvár-Vinkovci culture. This cultural classification constitutes a new interpretation of settlement activities before the Bronze Age began at Ljubljansko barje, in Slovenia in general, and in the neighbouring countries. 

Key words: dendrochronology, waterlogged archaeological wood, oak (Quercus sp.), ash (Fraxinus sp.), Eneolithic-Copper age, pile dwellings, radiocarbon dating 


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GDK 892.62

Prispelo / Received: 20.05.2003  Izvirni znanstveni članek 
Sprejeto / Accepted: 21.10.2003  Original scientific paper

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM THE CONES OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST.), EUROPEAN LARCH (LARIX DECIDUA MILL.) AND SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.)

Janja ZULE, Vesna TIŠLER, Andrej ŽUREJ, Nikolaj TORELLI

Abstract: Extraction and chemical characterization of essential oils from the cones of Norway spruce, European larch and Scots pine are presented in the article. Various monoterpenes have been identified and their relative concentrations calculated by means of gas chromatography. The contents of higher terpenes in individual oils have been also evaluated and the differences in their chemical compositions discussed. Key words: Norway spruce, Scots pine, European larch, essential oils, terpenes, chemical characterization, gas chromatography

Key words: forestry enterprise, safety at work, work accident, frequency, severity, work conditions

IZOLIRANJE IN KARAKTERIZIRANJE ETERIČNIH OLJ IZ STORŽEV NAVADNE SMREKE (PICEA ABIES KARST), EVROPSKEGA MACESNA (LARIX DECIDUA MILL.) IN RDEČEGA BORA (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.)

Izvleček: Preučevana je bila ekstrakcija eteričnih olj iz svežih storžev navadne smreke, rdečega bora in evropskega macesna ter njihova kemijska karakterizacija z metodo plinske kromatografije. Identificirani so različni monoterpeni in določene njihove relativne koncentracije. Ovrednotene so tudi vsebnosti višjih terpenov in podane razlike v kemijski sestavi posameznih eteričnih olj. 

Ključne besede: navadna smreka, rdeči bor, evropski macesen, eterična olja, terpeni, kemijska karakterizacija, plinska kromatografija